Browse Case Studies


Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada
Disinformation, Disruption, and the Shifting Media Ecosystem in the 2022 Philippines Election

Kelly Grounds, Madelyn Koff. May 4, 2022.

Social media is playing an outsized role in the lead-up to the May 9 presidential elections in the Philippines. Government lockdowns and other COVID-19-related restrictions have made it difficult for candidates to hold in-person campaign events. These limits on large gatherings, combined with more than 90 per cent of Filipinos getting their internet access via social media, have meant that the candidates are heavily relying on social media to capture the attention and votes of the electorate.

These campaign conditions are happening against the backdrop of a longer-term trend in the Philippines: An accelerated shift away from traditional media and towards social media, where information may be free and accessible, but not always accurate. This new media landscape, however, is fertile ground for candidates and their supporters to turn increasingly to disinformation tactics on social media rather than traditional media techniques.


Disinformation is a high-stake game threatening freedom

Chatham House. July 12, 2022.

In the second of a series of interviews with the Queen Elizabeth II Academy Faculty, Jessica Cecil examines solutions to disinformation eroding trust in democratic leadership.


Not Real News

AP News. June 2022.

A list of articles that provides correct information of highlighted untrue stories starting in April 2022.


New evidence of thriving ‘disinformation industry’ on Twitter is worrying as Kenya gears for elections in August 2022

Maldita Explica Feb. 22, 2022

A new digital investigation by Mozilla Foundation says it found that a cross-border influence information operation rigged Twitter’s trending topics to manipulate public opinion in Kenya.

Researchers describe how a Spain-based organization, CitizenGo, paid Kenyan influencers between US$10-$15, to flood Twitter with misleading or false tweets and graphics in a campaign against two hot-button issues in the country’s parliament.


How video of fire festival from Ghana cause disinformation for Kenya, DR Congo and Nigeria.

BBC News-Pidgin. August 21, 2022.

Dem don use one video wey dem do for Bugum Chugu Fire Festival Ghana on August 8, 2022 to push disinformation for Kenya, DR Congo and Nigeria.

For Kenya, Twitter user @iam_nyakoi share di video on August 11, 2022 wey show hundreds of pipo with lit torches on di streets of one town for night, with di caption “Scenes pale Kisumu. Earth is Gone!”.


Facebook approves election disinformation ads ahead of tense Brazil election.

Global Witness. August 15, 2022.

Our new investigation shows Facebook failed to detect ads with election-related disinformation ahead of the 2022 Brazilian election. These ads contained false information about the election, promoting the wrong election date and false voting methods, which could prevent people from voting, and called into question the integrity of the election.


Hospitals Are Full of Kids Sick With RSV—And Anti-Vaxxers Think It’s a Hoax

Mother Jones. Kiera Butler. November 21, 2022

The current surge in RSV misinformation has also alarmed Aoife Gallagher, an analyst with the Institute for Strategic Dialogue, an anti-extremism think tank with offices in Europe and the United States. At the beginning of the fall, during the start of the current wave of RSV cases, Gallagher said, she observed that the most widely shared tweets about RSV came from trustworthy medical authorities. When she ran the same analysis earlier last week, though, she found that seven of the top 10 tweets repeated conspiracy theories or misinformation.

The sources of the false RSV narratives, she found, were well-known anti-vaccine activists. Del Bigtree, the host of an online anti-vax show called The Highwire, falsely claimed that Covid vaccines were responsible for RSV infections. Judy Mikovits, the discredited virologist behind the Plandemic Covid conspiracy film, falsely suggested that RSV (along with Ebola and Zika) could be cured with the drugs hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin.


Narrative Warfare in the Digital Age

Geneva Graduate Institute. May 2023.

 The digitalization of our ways of life, alongside the frantic growth of social media, has opened up new value-generating opportunities for data collection, analysis and repackaging (algorithms, automation, AI). These changes have profoundly transformed the global informational landscape, with equally profound political consequences. The formation of public opinion is no longer based on the separation between legitimate producers of information (traditional media gatekeepers) and consumers (readers of the press and TV audiences), or between the creation of “truths” (assessed according to professional standards of proof) and “lies” (intentional state propaganda, for example), but on the blurring of boundaries between various sets of discourses. This blurring of boundaries, together with automated and AI-enhanced techniques to produce “public opinion", has led to the generalization of new forms of disinformation and “fake news”. The frontlines of ideological struggles for the “hearts and minds” of global publics have thus become more elusive in the digital age compared to the Cold War era, when ideologies confronted each other via printing presses, TVs and radio broadcasting. According to some philosophers and social scientists, the deeper entanglement of the digital world with our lives and the resulting fragmented global information system raises profound issues for our common humanity.


Propaganda and Disinformation between East and West: A Long-Term Perspective

Geneva Graduate Institute. May 2023.

As evidenced by Donald Trump’s surprise election victory in 2016, success in US politics in the social-media era often depends on a candidate’s ability to dominate the centre of every conversation. Not only in the US, facts today often appear superfluous; it is no longer so much content that matters as the capacity to monopolize the public information space.


Interpreting Disinformation

Geneva Graduate Institute. May 2023.

Writing in the 1920s and 1930s on subjects ranging from comparative history to propaganda and “false news”, Marc Bloch underscored the fact that knowledge is circumscribed by asymmetries in the manner in which it is generated. In an age in which political discourse is becoming increasingly strident, Bloch’s emphasis on analytic sophistication as the best line of defence against disinformation retains its relevance today.


Vulgar Vibes: The Atmospheres of the Global Disinformation Order

Geneva Graduate Institute. May 2023.

Vulgar and sexist actions and statements are frequently critical for setting the environment within which political discourse takes place. In Brazil during the Jair Bolsonaro era, the use of vulgarity reached new heights, enflaming a popular discourse that was already a polarizing and often violent expression of identity politics.


Levy sanctions against foreign aggressors targeting Canada with disinformation: MPs

CTV News /Canadian Press. June 26, 2023.

MPs are urging the Liberal government to levy sanctions against individuals and organizations who target Canadians with disinformation.

In a new report calling for stronger cybersecurity, the House of Commons defence committee warns of increasingly sophisticated disinformation and foreign influence campaigns by China, Russia and other aggressors.


Canada says China likely targeted lawmaker in disinformation campaign

Reuters. Kanishka Singh. August 9, 2023.

Canada said that an opposition Canadian legislator with family in Hong Kong had been targeted in an online disinformation operation and said China most likely played a role. In a statement, the Canadian foreign ministry said the target was Michael Chong, a member of the opposition Conservative party, a frequent critic of China who has drawn Beijing's ire.



Russia and Russia-Ukraine conflict

Global Security Review: How Russia’s Disinformation Campaigns are Succeeding in Europe

Russian disinformation campaigns continue to increase, and increasingly seems to be part of a coordinated campaign to overwhelm democracies.


China's promotion of Russian disinformation indicates where its loyalties lie

In public statements and at international summits, Chinese officials have attempted to stake out a seemingly neutral position on the war in Ukraine, neither condemning Russian actions nor ruling out the possibility Beijing could act as a mediator in a push for peace.

But while its international messaging has kept many guessing as to Beijing's true intentions, much of its domestic media coverage of Russia's invasion tells a wholly different story.


Zelensky, Putin videos provide glimpse of evolving deep fake threat, experts say

CBC March 20, 2022.

Fake videos with war leaders seemingly saying things they didn't say are circulating EU governments call on online platform to scale up fact-checking efforts 

EU governments gathered in France for an informal meeting on 8 March 2022 to discuss how to counter online disinformation from the Kremlin, following the Russian aggression of Ukraine almost two weeks ago. Representatives from Google, YouTube, Meta and Twitter were invited to the discussion.


Talk: Disinformation in the 2021–2022 Russo-Ukrainian crisis


CNN - Fake news (see first video clip is an instance of this)


Russian Misinformation Is “A Military Assault” on the West

The Guardian and Observer journalist, Carole Cadwalladr


Minister Joly announces additional sanctions targeting Russian disinformation and propaganda agents

Global Affairs Canada. July 8, 2022

The Honourable Mélanie Joly, Minister of Foreign Affairs, announced additional sanctions in relation to Russia’s illegal and unjustifiable invasion of Ukraine, while attending the G20 Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in Bali, Indonesia.

Minister Joly reaffirmed Canada’s unwavering commitment to support Ukraine, a friend and ally, as it fights for freedom. Canada will not stand by as President Vladimir Putin wages his illegal and unjust war and seeks to justify it through disinformation, manipulation and propaganda.


Canada continues to apply pressure on Russia with broader services ban, sanctioning of disinformation and propaganda figures, and sourcing ban on gold products

McCarthy Tetrault. July 20, 2022.

On July 7, 2022, Canada added 29 individuals and 15 entities to Schedule 1 who were identified as state-sponsored “Russian disinformation agents” and “Russian disinformation entities” who “bear the responsibility for enabling and supporting Russia’s unprovoked and unjustified invasion of Ukraine.”


A pro-Russian bot network in the EU amplifies disinformation about the war in Ukraine

European Digital Media Observatory. April 28, 2022.

Since the beginning of the war in Ukraine, on February 24, a large number of accounts, whose main goal was to spread pro-Russian disinformation, were detected on Twitter. Many of these profiles are suspected to be bots, but a large part could also be managed by actual human beings that act coordinately to spread false or misleading narratives about the conflict. This is what emerges from an exclusive investigation carried out by the EDMO task force on Ukraine which analyzed EU Member States, Switzerland and Great Britain.


Fact check: Fake news and content targets international media

DW Made for minds. July 8, 2022.

Pro-Russian fabricated posts pretending to be those of the BBC, CNN and DW are fuelling the mis- and disinformation war between Russia and Ukraine. They are also discrediting various international media outlets.

Since Russia invaded Ukraine on February 24, fake news has been thriving. Hoax videos, reports and tweets pretending to come from the BBC, CNN and other news outlets have come up on social media platforms, some even went viral. The main purpose seems to be to spread false claims, aiding the Russian disinformation war. A second aim seems to be to discredit media outlets.


The Strengthened Code of Practice on Disinformation

Visegrad / Insight. July 7, 2022.

There are expectations that the 2022 Strengthened Code of Practice and the provisions of the recently approved Digital Service Act will provide the relevant instruments to its most vulnerable member states and citizens, especially in Central Eastern Europe (CEE). Recently, the European Commission unveiled the newly strengthened Code of Practice on Disinformation that seeks to deploy a collaborative, democratic, and European approach to combating online disinformation across the EU.


Zelenskyy: Develop 'Emotional Sovereignty' Over Disinformation

VOA News. July 17, 2022.

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy, in his daily address Saturday, urged Ukrainians to develop “a kind of emotional sovereignty” over the disinformation and propaganda that Russia and others have distributed in various media about Ukraine.


Amid Rise in Misinformation, Hate Speech as Weapon of War, Strategic Communications Is Crucial to Achieve Peacekeeping Aims, Secretary-General Tells Security Council

United Nations. July 12, 2022.

This site features UN Secretary-General António Guterres’ remarks to the Security Council high-level debate on United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: The Key Role of Strategic Communications, in New York today, July 12, 2022. In his speech he outlines six concrete actions that can be adopted to improve strategic communications in peacekeeping.


Government censorship rebrands with ‘disinformation’ campaign Yves Engler. July 2022.

Social Media Lab at Toronto Metropolitan University’s School of Management released a report titled, “The reach of Russian propaganda and disinformation in Canada.” According to lead author Anatoliy Gruzd, “the research provides evidence that the Kremlin’s disinformation is reaching more Canadians than one would expect. Left unchallenged, state-sponsored information operations can stoke societal tensions and could even undermine democracy itself.”


Are Canadians immune to Russian propaganda? New research says you’ve likely already seen it on social media.

Toronto Metropolitan University. July 11, 2022.

Canadians are being exposed to pro-Kremlin propaganda. Slightly over half of Canadians (51%) reported encountering at least one pro-Kremlin claim about the Russia-Ukraine war on social media, according to new research from the Social Media Lab at the Ted Rogers School of Management.

In recent years, Russia has deployed bots, trolls and hackers across social media and the internet, as part of Russia’s goal to shape their public perception on the world stage. These tactics are in an effort to curate a more favorable environment for their agenda in Ukraine, as well as other areas of geopolitical.


The Reach of Russian Propaganda & Disinformation in Canada

Social Media Lab. July 12, 2022.

This report examines the extent to which Canadians are exposed to and might be influenced by pro-Kremlin propaganda on social media based on a census-balanced national survey of 1,500 Canadians conducted between May 12–31, 2022. Among other questions, the survey asked participants about their social media use, news consumption about the war in Ukraine, political leanings, as well as their exposure to and believe in common pro-Kremlin narratives.


War in Ukraine and Disinformation: Newsletter June 21, 2022.

Program on Democracy and Technology. June 21, 2022.

Telegram has been one of the key sources of disinformation on the events in Ukraine. Many reports linked this to Telegram’s soft moderation policy. However, our research published in the Journal of Information Technology and Politics shows that trusted news content can still dominate political information on Telegram even when moderation is minimal. This finding highlights the importance of virality algorithms used by most social media platforms – but not Telegram – to increase engagement and profits. The research was co-authored by Aliaksandr Herasimenka, Jonathan Bright, Aleksi Knuutila, Philip N. Howard.


Disinformation and hate speech pave the way for war crimes and genocide: UK statement on Ukraine

Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office. June 21, 2022.

UK Ambassador James Kariuki gave a statement to the United Nations Security Council on Ukraine and how incitement to violence leads to atrocity crimes.


Canada to Create Team to Counter Russian Disinformation: Trudeau

CTV. August 23, 2022.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau unveiled plans to create a special team focused on countering Russian disinformation and propaganda on Tuesday, as Ukrainians prepared to mark the six-month anniversary of Moscow's invasion of their country. The prime minister announced the new initiative as part of a package of new Canadian measures designed to support Ukraine and punish Russia for launching a war that has killed tens of thousands and whose impacts are being felt around the world.


Russian propaganda is making inroads with right-wing Canadians

The Conversation. July 17, 2022.

On July 8, Canada’s Foreign Affairs Minister Mélanie Joly announced new sanctions against Russia as a counter to the Kremlin’s disinformation activities aimed at Canada......

The data we collected shows that Canadians are being exposed to pro-Kremlin propaganda. Slightly over half of Canadians (51 per cent) reported encountering at least one persistent, false claim about the Russia-Ukraine war on social media pushed by the Kremlin and pro-Kremlin accounts.


The Reach of Russian Propaganda & Disinformation in Canada

Social Media Lab @ Toronto Metropolitan University

About this Report: This report was produced by the Social Media Lab at Ted Rogers School of Management, Toronto Metropolitan University. The report is based on a census-balanced online survey of 1,500 online Canadian adults (18+). The survey was conducted between May 12–31, 2022. See Appendix A for more information about data collection. Appendix B includes the survey questions used in the report.

This report examines the extent to which Canadians are exposed to and might be influenced by pro-Kremlin propaganda on social media-based on a census-balanced national survey of 1,500 Canadians. Among other questions, the survey asked participants about their social media use, news consumption about the war in Ukraine, political leanings, as well as their exposure to and believe in common pro-Kremlin narratives.


War in Ukraine and Disinformation Newsletter 16 August.

Programme on Democracy & Technology. August 16,2022.

We share our research and colleagues’ analyses that explain how misinformation operations during the Russia-Ukraine war are changing the global information environment. The newsletter is a collaboration between the Programme on Democracy and Technology and PeaceTech Lab. It is prepared by Dr Aliaksandr Herasimenka with the assistance of Danielle Recanati.


Russian Disinformation in Canada

U Calgary Alumni All-Access – School of Public Policy. October 13 2022 

In February 2022, Russian forces invaded Ukraine, sparking the largest military conflict in Europe since the end of the Second World War. Propaganda has long been a major aspect of war.

How does the Russian propaganda machine work? What impact does disinformation have on the war in Ukraine? A panel of experts delved into the workings of disinformation and the dissemination of propaganda to both the Russian people and the world. Find out how propaganda is targeted at Russians and those living outside of Russia, and what impact these campaigns have on the war in Ukraine and other Russian-led efforts.


Still at war: Russia's disinformation targeting Ukraine

EU vs Disinformation – Latest Articles, November 17, 2022.


History Is a Good Antidote to Disinformation About the Invasion of Ukraine

CIGI. Heidi Tworek. March 8, 2022.

Much of the current misinformation online exists to scam and to manipulate through speed. TikTok has become a key platform for misleading content. TikTok’s algorithm appears to offer up many misleading videos alongside scam calls for donations. These videos often depict older conflicts or conflicts in other places; the posters claim they are occurring in Ukraine and can garner millions of views. Abbie Richards suggests that “TikTok’s platform architecture is amplifying fear and permitting misinformation to thrive at a time of high anxiety,” calling the platform’s design “incompatible with the needs of the current moment.” It is hard to resist the siren call of doom scrolling. But a slower accumulation of knowledge at moments of crisis can avoid hurtful faux pas and prevent inadvertent spreading of disinformation.



Disinfowatch. October 5, 2022.

Disinformation narratives deployed by the Russian government in the months leading up to its invasion of Ukraine and afterwards have shifted over the past months to justify its invasion, erode Western support for Ukraine and undermine Western sanctions.

In a speech given in early September, Vladimir Putin repeated multiple Russian disinformation narratives, including a blanket denial of Russian responsibility for its invasion of Ukraine and it’s ongoing military operations in Ukraine, stating that “We did not start anything in terms of military action. We are trying to end it.”


Russian Propaganda and Disinformation Again Targeted by New Sanctions

Tereposky & DeRose. October 18, 2022

On October 17, 2022, the Government of Canada announced additional sanctions targeting 34 individuals and 1 entity “complicit in the dissemination of Russia disinformation and propaganda”, who “help assist the Russian regime in undermining the principles of state sovereignty and are responsible for spreading false narratives that serve as pretexts for the Russian regime’s unjustifiable war”.

The Government of Canada has indicated it intends to continue efforts to counter disinformation associated with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. The Government of Canada’s response has included to “work with its international partners to detect, correct and call out the Kremlin’s state-sponsored disinformation about Ukraine” and to publish “reliable and accurate information about the situation in Ukraine at home and abroad”.


What Russia’s Cyber Sovereignty Woes Tell Us About a Future “Splinternet”

International Forum for Democratic Studies. Elizabeth Kerley. October 13, 2022

Since launching its full-scale invasion of Ukraine, Russia has been putting its longstanding aspirations for “cyber sovereignty” to the test. In keeping with its longstanding objectives of “technological independence and information control,” the Kremlin has promoted homegrown tech in the face of sanctions while also halting the flow of independent information. Meanwhile this April, 61 mostly democratic countries signed a declaration articulating a vision for the internet that is “open, free, global, interoperable, reliable, and secure.” What does this clash of visions portend for the digital domain?


“Western Weapons in Wrong Hands”

Russian Disinformation Monitoring: October 31-November 6, 2022.

During the week from 31 October to 6 November 2022, Detector Media’s analysts recorded about fifty disinformation fakes spread by Russian propagandists to achieve Russia’s political goals. This week, the Russian propaganda machine claimed that Ukraine was losing the support of the West and would soon be left without weapons; stated that under the UN Charter, Russia had the right to “denazify” whomever it wanted; asserted that Russia was not waging war with full force and was about to launch a “large-scale offensive”.



Europe Diplomatic. October 24, 2022

“Today, East Stratcom Task Force is adding another tool that anyone could use to understand the threat better and to defend themselves against it. The EUvsDisinfo website, the EU’s first project raising awareness of disinformation, has been enriched with a new “Learn” section

“This page explains the mechanisms, tactics, common narratives and actors behind disinformation and information manipulation. It offers insights into the pro-Kremlin media ecosystem, and also explains the philosophy behind foreign information manipulation and interference. The readers can also find easy response technics that anyone can apply, and afterwards they can practise their newly acquired skills through quizzes and games”.


Best and Worst of 2022: The Top Straight Shooters and Misinformers — Plus Sites We All Would Have Wanted to Know About Before They Made Waves

NewsGuard. Jack Brewster & Sam Howard. Dec. 2022

To sum up the 2022 war against misinformation in one phrase: One step forward, two steps back.

In February, Russia invaded Ukraine, and pro-Russian disinformation flooded social media feeds, despite platforms’ increased moderation efforts following a divisive U.S. presidential election and the COVID-19 pandemic. Four months later, far-right media countered the Jan. 6 House committee hearings with rampant falsehoods about the attack and the 2020 U.S. presidential election. QAnon at one point appeared all but gone from America’s major social media platforms. But in June, “Q” re-emerged, when former President Donald Trump’s new Twitter competitor, Truth Social, gave the conspiracy theory’s adherents a welcoming home.


Fake news in 2022: 10 of the oddest stories of the year

DW-World Economic Forum. Tetyana Klug. Dec 30, 2022.

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022 was followed by an information war — replete with a large-scale disinformation campaign, targeted propaganda and conspiracy theories, especially on social media. Beyond that, NewsGuard, a US journalism and technology outfit that has been fighting disinformation for years, identified 311 websites publishing pro-Russian disinformation to justify Moscow's war of aggression against its neighbor.


“Dezinformatsiya” and Foreign Information Manipulation and Interference

Geneva Graduate Institute. May 2023.

The Russian narrative on its “special military operation” in Ukraine changes frequently and includes a host of often contradictory accusations against Ukraine and its Western supporters. Ultimately, however, it is not the content of the narrative that is central to the Russian disinformation operation so much as its ability to confuse, its capacity to drown out the “signal” with “noise”.


France targets Russian and Wagner disinformation in Africa

Reuters. John Irish, E. Pineau and Bate Felix. June 21, 2023.

In March, a video circulated online claiming that France had orchestrated an attack on a gold mine in the Central African Republic, which resulted in the death of nine Chinese nationals. The video alleged that the purpose was to discredit the Russian mercenary group Wagner in the country. The clip raised concerns within a media monitoring unit in the French foreign ministry, which was established as part of an effort to strengthen diplomatic ties with France's former African colonies after a period of declining influence.


Misinformation, disinformation flourish in Ukraine

Saltwire. Scott Taylor. June 21, 2023.

As the war in Ukraine enters its 17th month, the misinformation and disinformation continues to emanate from both sides of the conflict.

Depending on which news outlet one follows, it would be possible to believe that the armed forces of Ukraine are destroying the Russian invaders with ease, armed, equipped and trained by NATO allies, including Canada. Conversely, pro-Russia media sites portray the war as a Kremlin victory, with the current Ukrainian counter-offensive being bloodily repulsed at the hands of superior Russian forces.


France uncovers major Russian disinformation campaign

DW. June 13, 2023.

France said it has found a large-scale Russian disinformation campaign involving Russia's embassies and cultural institutes. Fake news hostile to Ukraine were made to look like they were published by French mass media.

French Foreign Minister Catherine Colonna said on Tuesday that France had prevented a hybrid digital attack on her ministry's website, likely carried out by Russian state actors, as well as attacks on other government websites and French media sites.


France exposes mega Russian disinformation campaign

Politico. Laur Kayali & Clea Caulcutt. June 13, 2023.

France has uncovered a wide-ranging Russian disinformation campaign to undermine Western support to Ukraine, the country's agency in charge of spotting foreign interference online announced Tuesday.

According to agency Viginum's report, the campaign consisted of spreading pro-Russian content; impersonating media such as Le Monde, Le Figaro and Le Parisien, as well as government websites including France's ministry of European and foreign affairs; creating websites on francophone news with polarizing angles; and coordinating fake accounts to spread the content created.


“Welcome... to Russia?”. Overview of Russian Disinformation for June 12-18, 2023

Detector Media. Orest Slyvenko. June 27, 2023.

Since February 24, 2022, Detector Media has been monitoring the Ukrainian segment of social media as well as the Kremlin media and documenting the chronicle of Russian disinformation about Russia’s war against Ukraine on a daily basis. Over time, they started making regular reviews.

From June 12 to June 18, 2023, Detector Media recorded more than 30 disinformation pieces. During this time, propagandists claimed that Ukraine is part of Russia and that Greta Thunberg called on Russia not to destroy leopard tanks.


Countering disinformation with facts - Russian invasion of Ukraine

Government of Canada. July 14, 2023.

The Kremlin has long spread disinformation and propaganda to achieve its objectives. It continues to disseminate lies to justify its unprovoked, unjustifiable invasion of Ukraine. Below, you will find a sample of the many lies by the Russian regime about its invasion of Ukraine, along with the truth. This information is based on Government of Canada intelligence. Limit the spread of disinformation by knowing how to identify it and being critical about what you read.


Russia must end disinformation and return to mature diplomacy and multilateralism: UK statement to the OSCE

Gov.UK. September 27, 2023.

UK military advisor, Nicholas Aucott ( Senior Military Advisor at the UK Delegation to the OSCE) in a speech given in Vienna, says that Russia continues to use the OSCE as a platform to push its disinformation campaign to cover over the strategic setbacks in its war of aggression.


The Russian War on Truth: Defending Allied and Partner Democracies Against the Kremlin’s Disinformation Campaigns

NATO Parliamentary Assembly. Joelle Garriaud-Maylam. September 15, 2023.

Russian disinformation poses a serious threat to the security and democracy of Euro-Atlantic area countries. By eroding the distinction between reality and fiction, the Kremlin and its supporters seek to amplify societal divisions and destabilize Allied and partner states. They also seek to undermine citizens’ trust in democratic institutions and systems.

The aim of this draft report is to stimulate avenues of thought to aid in this fight. It delves into the origins, recent developments, objectives and operations of Russian disinformation. Additionally, it provides an overview of the various measures taken by Allied and partner nations to counter it and examines the reasons behind Ukraine’s success in combatting Russian information manipulation during the new invasion. Finally, it sets out recommendations for Allied governments and NATO to develop a more cohesive and efficient response to Russian disinformation.


The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model: Why It Might Work and Options to Counter It

Christopher Paul and Miriam Mattthews. September 2023.

Since its 2008 incursion into Georgia (if not before), there has been a remarkable evolution in Russia's approach to propaganda. This new approach was on full display during the country's 2014 annexation of the Crimean peninsula. It continues to be demonstrated in support of ongoing conflicts in Ukraine and Syria and in pursuit of nefarious and long-term goals in Russia's “near abroad” and against NATO allies.


"Europe Will Mobilize and Send Ukrainian Refugees to the Frontline". Overview of Russian Disinformation for August 28 - September 2, 2023

Detector Media. Orest Slyvenko. September 14, 2023.

Since February 24, 2022, Detector Media has diligently monitored the Ukrainian segment of social media, along with the Kremlin media, systematically documenting the chronicle of Russian disinformation concerning Russia's war against Ukraine on a daily basis. As time passed, regular reviews began to be conducted by the organization.


Surging falsehoods seek to dent Western aid to Ukraine

Euractiv. October 27, 2023.

From fake street art to doctored media reports demonising President Volodymyr Zelenskyy, a torrent of online disinformation seeks to erode Western support that is crucial for Kyiv’s war effort against Russia.


Kremlin Watchers Movement: Disinformation Trends in September 2023

Vox Ukraine. Kremlin Watchers Movement Team. October 25, 2023.

Russia intensified its disinformation campaigns against Ukraine in September 2023. This analysis provides an overview of the most spread disinformation cases during the last months, paying attention to tactics and goals of Russian propaganda.


Kremlin Communication Strategy for Russian Audiences Before and After the Full-Scale Invasion of Ukraine

NATO. Neville Bolt, Vera Michlin et al. October 12, 2023.

The report examines the Kremlin-aligned information space in the period leading up to and immediately after the key juncture to draw lessons for assessing Russia's actions in the future. It aims to inform responses to those actions, now that there is an absence of any illusions that Russia is anything other than a malign actor willing to use its military might to achieve its geopolitical goals.


Examining the Activities of Russian State-Controlled Media on Meta Platforms Two Years After the Invasion of Ukraine

Graphika. Eugene Imas et al. February 14, 2024.

This February marks two years since the Russian invasion of Ukraine and a decade since “little green men” first appeared in Crimea, paving the way for Moscow’s illegal annexation of the peninsula. The events of February 2022 triggered the largest military conflict in Europe since World War II, killing or injuring hundreds of thousands of people and prompting social media platforms to take unprecedented actions to curtail the reach of Russian state-controlled media. Over the last two years, Graphika has worked with industry partners at Meta to detect, track, and expose overt and covert Russian influence operations on its platforms.



US Elections

Data misuse and disinformation: Technology and the 2022 elections

Brookings: Samantha Lai. June 21, 2022.

With the U.S. 2022 elections, the same issues over the algorithmic amplification of disinformation and misinformation and microtargeted political ads will once again resurface. Much work remains to be done for the U.S. to rise to the challenge of protecting the integrity of our elections. In response to growing concern over electoral disinformation the U.S. government has worked to established systems to protect election security. This article highlights and addresses a number of such initiatives.


Disarming Disinformation: Our shared responsibilities

US Department of State. July 15, 2022.

Disinformation is one of the Kremlin’s most important and far-reaching weapons. Russia has operationalized the concept of perpetual adversarial competition in the information environment by encouraging the development of a disinformation and propaganda ecosystem. This ecosystem creates and spreads false narratives to strategically advance the Kremlin’s policy goals. There is no subject off-limits to this firehose of falsehoods. Everything from human rights and environmental policy to assassinations and civilian-killing bombing campaigns are fair targets in Russia’s malign playbook.


Opinion Facebook misinformation is bad enough. The metaverse will be worse.

Washington Post. Rand Waltzman. August 22, 2022.

Here’s a plausible scenario that could soon take place in the metaverse, the online virtual reality environments under rapid development by Mark Zuckerberg and other tech entrepreneurs: A political candidate is giving a speech to millions of people. While each viewer thinks they are seeing the same version of the candidate, in virtual reality they are actually each seeing a slightly different version. For each and every viewer, the candidate’s face has been subtly modified to resemble the viewer.


On TikTok, Election Misinformation Thrives Ahead of Midterms

NY Times. Tiffany Hsu. August 14, 2022.

Ahead of the midterm elections this fall, TikTok is shaping up to be a primary incubator of baseless and misleading information, in many ways as problematic as Facebook and Twitter, say researchers who track online falsehoods. The same qualities that allow TikTok to fuel viral dance fads — the platform’s enormous reach, the short length of its videos, its powerful but poorly understood recommendation algorithm — can also make inaccurate claims difficult to contain.


Data misuse and disinformation: Technology and the 2022 elections

Brookings. Samantha Lai. June 2022.

Digital platforms, massive data collection, and increasingly sophisticated software create new ways for bad actors to generate and spread convincing disinformation and misinformation at potentially massive scales, disproportionately hurting marginalized communities. With the 2022 midterm elections around the corner, it is important to revisit how emerging technologies serve to suppress voting rights, and how the U.S. is going about the protection of such democratic ideals.


The politics of rage and disinformation — we ignore it at our peril.

National Observer. Supriya Dwivedi. July 18, 2022.

Misinformation, disinformation, and conspiracy theories don’t exist in a vacuum, nor do they only live online. They spill out into the real world and impact very real people. And when misinformation, disinformation or conspiracy theories target groups of people already on the receiving end of hate, unsurprisingly, the hate experienced by those groups tends to increase.

In the aftermath of the last federal election, one thing that became abundantly clear was that much of our legacy political media seemed either unwilling or unable to report on the very real threat posed by politicians who use misinformation and conspiracy theories as part of their political shtick to appeal to voters.


Information Gaps and Misinformation in the 2022 Elections.

Brennan Centre for Justice. August 2, 2022.

False claims about the 2020 election have prompted anti-voter laws and mistrust in the process. Election officials, civic groups, and the media must act against the threat of election misinformation. The prob­lem of elec­tion misin­form­a­tion is vast. Part of the prob­lem occurs when there is high demand for inform­a­tion about a topic, but the supply of accur­ate and reli­able inform­a­tion is inad­equate to meet that demand. The result­ing inform­a­tion gap creates oppor­tun­it­ies for misin­form­a­tion to emerge and spread.


“Exhausting and Dangerous”: The Dire Problem of Election Misinformation and Disinformation

Majority Staff Report: Committee on Oversight and Reform U.S. House of Representatives. August 11, 2022.

The Oversight Committee began investigating the pernicious effects of lies about election administration on our democracy in early 2021. In particular, the Committee has investigated how misinformation and disinformation drive fraudulent efforts to cast doubt on legitimate election results, increase threats to election administrators, and create pathways for bad actors to subvert our democratic elections.

Earlier this year, the Oversight Committee and the Committee on House Administration launched an investigation to gather information directly from local election officials about the threat posed by election misinformation. On April 1, 2022, the Committee sent request letters to organizations of election officials in Arizona, Florida, Ohio, and Texas – states where election misinformation appeared to be having a significant impact.

The investigation uncovered that coordinated campaigns of election disinformation are disrupting the crucial work of local election officials, subjecting these Americans to violent threats, and overwhelming the limited resources available to provide accurate information to voters and protect the integrity of our democratic system. The findings indicate that strong federal leadership is needed to support the state and local officials responsible for running our elections.


Meta, TikTok, and Twitter Hope to Fight Election Misinformation. Experts Say Their Plans Aren’t Enough

Time Magazine. Nik Popli. August 18, 2022.

With less than three months from the U.S. midterm elections, social media companies are preparing for another intense fight against misinformation. TikTok, Meta, and Twitter say they’re ready for the challenge this time, and they’ve each drafted a similar playbook that includes more fact-checking, labelling misinformation more carefully and adding more restrictions on political advertising.

But experts who study social media and politics point out that these new policies aren’t that different from those in place in 2020—which could have consequences, since video content may play a larger role in the spread of misinformation this year.


Big Tech Must Step Up Now to Fight Misinformation in the Midterms

NYU Centre for Social Media and Politics. July 10, 2022.

Instead of pulling back election integrity measures, platforms should enhance their election safeguards. As researchers who study the intersection of social media, politics and democracy, here are four questions we’re watching:

  • How will social media respond to threats to democratic legitimacy?
  • How will companies stop extremists from organizing on their platforms?
  • What about video?
  • Will platforms share their data?


DHS Needs a Unified Strategy to Counter Disinformation Campaigns

Office of the Inspector General, Department of Homeland Security. August 10, 2022.

The Department of Homeland Security began internal and external coordination efforts in 2018 to counter disinformation appearing in social media. These efforts were predominantly focused on disinformation campaigns that pertained to election infrastructure or to distinct mission operations.


‘Hackers against conspiracies’: Cyber sleuths take aim at election disinformation

Politico. Maggie Miller. August 15, 2022.

The security experts who have spent years exposing flaws in voting technology are still at it — but ongoing election conspiracy theories are forcing them to make changes.

One of the country’s biggest hacking conferences became a test site this year for an urgent political question for the midterms: How to hunt for vulnerabilities in voting machines without fuelling election misinformation.


Twitter Looks to Prevent a Disinformation Free-for-All Ahead of 2022 Midterms

PCMag. Nathaniel Mott. August 11, 2022.

By applying its Civic Integrity Policy to the upcoming US elections, Twitter is looking to 'enables healthy civic conversation' on its platform. (Don't laugh.) The company expanded(Opens in a new window) the Civic Integrity Policy ahead of the 2020 presidential election to "further protect against content that could suppress the vote and help stop the spread of harmful misinformation that could compromise the integrity of an election or other civic process." Now it's looking to apply those same measures to the 2022 midterms being held in November.


TWITTER - The mission of our civic integrity work is to protect the conversation on Twitter during elections or other civic processes.

We're working to prepare for elections, elevate credible information, and help keep you safe on Twitter. Our civic integrity policy aims to prevent the use of Twitter to share or spread false or misleading information about a civic process (e.g., elections or census) that may disrupt or undermine public confidence in that process.

This policy is enforced when the risk for manipulation or interference is highest — generally a few months before and a couple of weeks after election day, depending on local and external factors. This policy is an additional, temporary protection on top of all the Twitter Rules, which are enforced year-round.


Meta quieter on election misinformation as midterms loom

AP. Amanda Seitz. August 5, 2022.

Facebook owner Meta is quietly curtailing some of the safeguards designed to thwart voting misinformation or foreign interference in U.S. elections as the November midterm vote approaches.

It’s a sharp departure from the social media giant’s multibillion-dollar efforts to enhance the accuracy of posts about U.S. elections and regain trust from lawmakers and the public after their outrage over learning the company had exploited people’s data and allowed falsehoods to overrun its site during the 2016 campaign.


As 2022 midterms approach, disinformation on social media platforms continues

PBS. David Klepper (AP). October 21, 2022

With less than three weeks before the polls close, misinformation about voting and elections abounds on social media despite promises by tech companies to address a problem blamed for increasing polarization and distrust.

While platforms like Twitter, TikTok, Facebook and YouTube say they’ve expanded their work to detect and stop harmful claims that could suppress the vote or even lead to violent confrontations, a review of some of the sites shows they’re still playing catch-up with 2020, when then-President Donald Trump’s lies about the election he lost to Joe Biden helped fuel an insurrection at the U.S. Capitol.


Fakery and confusion: Campaigns brace for explosion of AI in 2024

Politico. Madison Fernandez, June 18, 2023.

Dozens of Democratic strategists gathered on Zoom on Wednesday for a novel meeting. The topic: How to combat an expected explosion of AI-generated fake content flooding TV airwaves and mailboxes in 2024.

The meeting, hosted by the progressive group Arena, drew more than 70 officials. They talked about how generative AI could produce misinformation and disinformation at a pace and scale campaigns have not experienced before.


Top AI expert ‘completely terrified’ of 2024 election, shaping up to be ‘tsunami of misinformation’

Fortune. Ali Swenson, Christine Fernando, et al. December 26, 2023.

Nearly three years after rioters stormed the U.S. Capitol, the false election conspiracy theories that drove the violent attack remain prevalent on social media and cable news: suitcases filled with ballots, late-night ballot dumps, dead people voting.

Experts warn it will likely be worse in the coming presidential election contest. The safeguards that attempted to counter the bogus claims the last time are eroding, while the tools and systems that create and spread them are only getting stronger.


Stakes are really high’: misinformation researcher changes tack for 2024 US election

The Guardian. Rachel Leingan. January 1, 2024.

A key researcher in the fight against election misinformation – who herself became the subject of an intensive misinformation campaign – has said her field gets accused of “bias” precisely because it’s now mainly right-wingers who spread the worst lies.

Kate Starbird, co-founder of the University of Washington’s Center for an Informed Public, added that she feared that the entirely false story of rigged elections has now “sunk in” for many Americans on the right. “The idea that they’re already going to the polls with the belief that they’re being cheated means they’ll misinterpret everything they see through that lens,” she said.


‘Stakes are really high’: misinformation researcher changes tack for 2024 US election

Guardian. Rachel Leingang. January 1, 2024.

A key researcher in the fight against election misinformation – who herself became the subject of an intensive misinformation campaign – has said her field gets accused of “bias” precisely because it’s now mainly rightwingers who spread the worst lies.


Disinformation poses an unprecedented threat in 2024 – and the U.S. is less ready than ever

NBC News. Brandy Zadrozny. January 18, 2024.

Disinformation poses an unprecedented threat to democracy in the United States in 2024, according to researchers, technologists and political scientists.

As the presidential election approaches, experts warn that a convergence of events at home and abroad, on traditional and social media — and amid an environment of rising authoritarianism, deep distrust, and political and social unrest — makes the dangers from propaganda, falsehoods and conspiracy theories more dire than ever.


How disinformation “sabotages America”

WBUR. Jonathan Chang & Meghna Chakrabarti. March 21, 2024

Nearly 40% of Americans say they have no trust in news media, according to a 2023 Gallup poll. Former U.S. attorney Barbara McQuade says disinformation is seeping into every aspect of our political and social lives.

How can we stop it?




Understanding the challenges posed by mis- and disinformation to develop better policy responses

The rapid spread of mis- and disinformation, which has been especially significant during the COVID-19 pandemic, poses fundamental challenges to public governance by drowning out and confusing official messages and factual information. Beyond the health crisis, mis- and disinformation more broadly cast evidence and facts into doubt, sow distrust and can threaten the integrity of democratic processes.


Disinformation: new actions from online platforms and extension of the monitoring programme

The Commission announces today the extension of its Coronavirus disinformation monitoring programme for another six months until June 2022, as it publishes the latest reports by online platforms on their actions taken between September and October.


Combating the disinfodemic: Working for truth in the time of COVID-19

COVID-19 has led to a parallel pandemic of disinformation that directly impacts lives and livelihoods around the world. Falsehoods and misinformation have proven deadly and sowed confusion about life-saving personal and policy choices.

To #ShareKnowledge, UNESCO has published two policy briefs offering critical insights into the fast-growing COVID-19-related disinformation that is impeding access to trustworthy sources and reliable information.


COVID disinformation campaign targeted BioNTech-Pfizer

A mysterious PR agency bribed health bloggers to spread false information on the BioNTech-Pfizer COVID vaccine.


COVID-19 misinformation

COVID-19 misinformation refers to misinformation and conspiracy theories about the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease COVID-19, which is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. False information, including intentional disinformation, has been spread through social media, text messaging,[1] and mass media. False information has been propagated by celebrities, politicians, and other prominent public figures. Many countries have passed laws against "fake news," and thousands of people have been arrested for spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The spread of COVID-19 misinformation by governments has also been significant.


Fighting Coronavirus Misinformation and Disinformation

Although online disinformation and misinformation about the coronavirus are different—the former is the intentional spreading of false or misleading information and the latter is the unintentional sharing of the same—both are a serious threat to public health. Social media platforms have facilitated an informational environment that, in combination with other factors, has complicated the public health response, enabled widespread confusion, and contributed to loss of life during the pandemic.



ScienceUpFirst is a national initiative that works with a collective of independent scientists, researchers, health care experts and science communicators. They share the best available science in creative ways to stop the spread of misinformation.


COVID 19: A Severe Strain on the Information Space

Dean Jackson. April 2020.

Changes, including the promotion of accurate information from official sources, have not been enough to stem the tide of bad information: conspiracy theories, scams, and other forms of misleading content continue to flow, especially outside of the English language.

A virus without respect for borders has forced the world’s people to simultaneously reckon with threats to government accountability, press freedom, and the vitality of public discourse. Societies cannot understand these trends solely through the narrow lens of their own local political contexts. Doing so would mean failing to engage in important debates about democracy and the broader information space—which will surely have implications for future pandemics and other transnational crises to come.


Misinformation Alerts

Public Health Communications Collaborative. July 2022.

Knowing what misinformation is being shared can help you generate effective messaging. These insights are based on a combination of automated media monitoring and manual review by public health data analysts. Media data are publicly available data from many sources, such as social media, broadcast television, newspapers and magazines, news websites, online video, blogs, and more.


National Endowment for Democracy

COVID19-Analysis Hub

This resource includes essays and a selection of blog posts and podcast episodes concerning COVID19.


Physicians Spreading Misinformation on Social Media — Do Right and Wrong Answers Still Exist in Medicine?

New England Journal of Medicine July 7, 2022.

Considering widespread falsehoods about Covid-19 and its treatment and prevention, the American Board of Internal Medicine has informed doctors that disseminating misinformation is grounds for disciplinary sanctions.


Misinformation causes real harm and potentially kills, Canada’s top doc says

Globe and Mail. July 1, 2022.

Chief public health officer Theresa Tam says the racist, misogynistic abuse she’s faced during the pandemic has been a source of personal difficulty, and underscore the growing threat posed by the proliferation of misinformation about COVID-19.

Dr. Tam made her comments in a recent interview with The Globe and Mail, in which she offered a rare glimpse at her personal experience and perspective leading Canada through the worst public health crisis in a century.


Misinformation on social media linked to higher spread of COVID-19 in new study

CTV News. June 11, 2022.

A new study found social media use was linked to a higher spread of COVID-19 in the early stages of the pandemic, which researchers suggest could be due to widespread misinformation.

“What we found was surprising,” says research lead Jude Kong, an assistant professor at York University’s faculty of science. “This highlights the need to consider the dynamic role that social media plays in epidemics.”


The Disinformation Project

International Science Festival. July 14, 2022.

With a focus on social cohesion and inclusion, this talk by Kate Hannah, Director of the Disinformation Project, explores the misinformation ecosystem, the role of trust, and provides a call to action for communities.


Health Messaging in the Disinformation Age

Project Syndicate. William A. Haseltine August 24, 2022.

Unclear, opaque public health messaging has been a major problem throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, sowing confusion and making the crisis worse than it needed to be. To regain the public's trust, health officials must start learning from their mistakes and stop confusing credibility with infallibility.


Anti-vax Twitter accounts pushing food crisis misinformation, study finds

The Guardian. Adam Gabbatt. August 1, 2022.

Research says conspiracy theorists shifting from QAnon and Covid to disinformation about crisis caused by Russia’s war in Ukraine Twitter accounts that have promoted QAnon and anti-vaccine conspiracy theories are switching focus and increasingly spreading disinformation about the global food crisis caused by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, according to a new study.


Disinformation is a Regional Economic Problem

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Emmanuel A. San Andres. October 25, 2022  

Information disorder is a catch-all phrase for the spread of false information which may cause negative societal and even economic harm—whether or not the harm was the intent of the creators and spreaders. It can be divvied into three categories: misinformation, or the sharing of falsity but with no intent to harm anyone; disinformation or the sharing of false information with intent to do harm; and malinformation, or the repurposing or recontextualization of facts, also with harmful intent. All three are reliant on how fast stories can be spread online to dangerous effect.


Before the next health crisis, we need to grow trust and fight misinformation

Policy Options. Bruch MacLellan, Josh Zanin. May 24, 2023.

The public policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic was one of the largest peacetime challenges for government in modern history. The pandemic threatened the life of every person and placed unprecedented demands on political leaders and public officials at all three levels of government. The pandemic also occurred in an age of social media, where information and misinformation spread quickly, and where anonymity has empowered the darkest corners of society. There are three things that can be done to prepare for the next crisis: teach younger Canadians in particular how to distinguish between disinformation/misinformation and reject it; invest in the training of trusted family doctors and nurse practitioners; and develop deeper legislative and policy partnerships between federal and provincial governments.


The ‘truther playbook’: tactics that explain vaccine conspiracy theorist RFK Jr’s presidential momentum

The Conversation. Stephanie Alice Baker, Chris Rojek, Eugene McLaughlin. June 2, 2023.

While incumbent Joe Biden is the favoured Democratic pick for the 2024 US presidential nomination, another more controversial candidate is gaining popular support in the polls. Robert F. Kennedy Jr, a self-described vaccine sceptic, announced his candidacy to run for president as a Democrat in April.

Our new study on the rhetorical techniques used to spread vaccine disinformation partly explains Kennedy’s appeal to voters. We examined the strategies of RFK Jr and American osteopath Joseph Mercola, two prominent members of the “disinformation dozen”.


Four years after shelter-in-place, COVID-19 misinformation persists

Poynter. Kwasi Gyamfi Asiedu. March 18, 2024

False claims about vaccines are still prevalent despite multiple studies showing they saved lives and do not cause deaths or other illness.

Some people falsely asserted COVID-19’s symptoms were associated with 5G wireless technology. Faux cures and untested treatments populated social media and political discourse. Amid uncertainty about the virus’s origins, some even proclaimed COVID-19 didn’t exist at all. PolitiFact named downplay and denial about the virus its 2020 Lie of the Year.



Truck Convoy Ottawa

The politics of rage and disinformation — we ignore it at our peril (Canada)

National Observer. July 18, 2022.

Misinformation, disinformation, and conspiracy theories don’t exist in a vacuum, nor do they only live online. They spill out into the real world and impact very real people. And when misinformation, disinformation or conspiracy theories target groups of people already on the receiving end of hate, unsurprisingly, the hate experienced by those groups tends to increase.


‘Queen of Canada’: the rapid rise of a fringe QAnon figure sounds alarm.

The Guardian. Leyland Cecco. August 23, 2022.

She travels Canada in a flag-draped RV with an entourage. She greets supporters in small towns, who eagerly film the encounters on mobile phones. She’s called on her disciples to execute healthcare workers and politicians who support mass vaccination campaigns.

To her more than 60,000 followers online, she’s the newly installed Queen of Canada. But to law enforcement and national security officials, she represents the threat that online conspiracy theorists may be all too capable of inflicting real-world harm.


Russia Today covered ‘Freedom Convoy’ protests more than any foreign outlet: research

Global News. Rachel Gilmore. July 13, 2022.

Russia Today (RT) covered Canada’s so-called “Freedom Convoy” protests far more closely than any other international outlet, according to new research.

The Russian state-controlled television network used key words associated with the convoy protest during more than four and half hours of broadcasts between Jan. 13 and Feb. 12 — dwarfing the rate of any other international outlet’s coverage of the anti-mandate occupation that snarled Ottawa streets earlier this year.


Weapon of mass disruption: How disinformation is fuelling political division

Science Borealis. May 16, 2022.

Like many people, I typically scroll through my social media feeds when I’m taking a break from work or connecting with family and friends. I view these online spaces as places where my brain can go to zone out for a little while.

When the Freedom Convoy participants paralyzed downtown Ottawa for several weeks, ostensibly to protest COVID-19 mandates, I felt a reflex-like need to vent my own anger about the situation online. But something prevented me from rage tweeting or launching into a Facebook rant: the spectre of misinformation.


One quarter of Canadians believe online conspiracy theories, expert tells MPs

CBC. Elizabeth Thompson. April 28, 2022.

A quarter of Canadians believe in online conspiracy theories, an expert on radicalization and terrorism told a parliamentary committee Thursday. David Morin, a professor at the Université de Sherbrooke, said a poll conducted for an upcoming report he is preparing for the Quebec government found that 9 to 10 per cent of Canadians strongly believe in conspiracy theories, while another 15 per cent moderately believe them.


Canada sanctions additional Russian propaganda agents

Global Affairs Canada. October 17, 2022

The Honourable Mélanie Joly, Minister of Foreign Affairs, today announced that Canada is imposing further sanctions in relation to Russia’s unjustifiable invasion and attempted annexation of Ukrainian territory. The announcement was made during the visit to Ottawa of human rights and media freedom activists Bill Browder and Evgenia Kara-Murza, wife of detained Russian opposition leader Vladimir Kara-Murza.


Czech War on Disinformation is Still Mostly Talk

Reporting Democracy. Tim Gosling. November 9, 2022.

The recent huge cost-of-living protests – organized by extremist, pro-Russian elements – was a wake-up call for a government that seems to have forgotten its earlier pledge to build a blueprint to fight back against disinformation.


'River of Freedom' documentary and misinformation and disinformation in the lead up to the election w/ Byron C Clark

95 b FM Radio. AUDIO REVIEW OF THE FILM. September 13, 2023.

A newly released documentary 'River of Freedom' is being shown in several cinemas across the country. The documentary focuses on the perspectives of the convoy who occupied parliament grounds in 2022, who in the film's own words, were “fed up with Covid-19 restrictions and vaccine mandates.”

The film has been promoted on platforms like The Platform, Counterspin, and Reality Check Radio, and has been accused of promoting disinformation. News and Editorial Director Jessica Hopkins spoke to the activist, researcher, and author of 'Fear: New Zealand's Hostile Underworld of Extremists’, Byron C Clark, about his impression of the documentary, and looking out for misinformation and disinformation in the lead up to the election.



Facebook misses election disinformation ads in Brazil: Report

Al Jazeera. August 15, 2022.

Facebook failed to filter out advertisements containing election disinformation in Brazil, a new report from human rights group Global Witness has found, as the country prepares for a tightly contested October vote.

The international rights group said on Monday that it had submitted 10 ads in Brazilian Portuguese to Facebook that contained election disinformation, including false claims about where and when to vote, or sought to delegitimize the country’s electoral process.


Facebook failed to catch blatant misinformation in ads ahead of Brazil’s 2022 election — for the fourth time

Fortune. Barbara Ortutay and AP. August 15, 2022.

Facebook failed to detect blatant election-related misinformation in ads ahead of Brazil’s 2022 election, a new report from Global Witness has found, continuing a pattern of not catching material that violates its policies the group describes as “alarming.”

The advertisements contained false information about the country’s upcoming election, such as promoting the wrong election date, incorrect voting methods and questioning the integrity of the election — including Brazil’s electronic voting system.


Kenya 2022: International Observers Praise Voting, Warn on Disinformation

The African Report Victor Abuso. August 12, 2022

As Kenyans wait for the final presidential results, international observers – in their preliminary reports – say the voting exercise was largely peaceful, even though there has been spread of disinformation that confused some voters.


The United Kingdom’s Online Safety Bill Exposes a Disinformation Divide

Centre for Strategic International Studies. August 11, 2022

A major effort to curb misinformation and disinformation in the United Kingdom hit a recent snag: the turmoil surrounding Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s resignation and upcoming Conservative Party leadership election. Prior to Johnson’s announcement, the House of Commons had been expected to advance the proposed Online Safety Bill in mid-July. But due to new schedule constraints, the legislation has been tabled at least through the fall.

Some critics have seized the postponement as an opportunity to call for a “total rethink” of the bill, and the viability of any current or future content moderation proposal will likely depend on the standpoint of the next prime minister. Misinformation and disinformation can be harmful, but it is not always illegal in the United Kingdom—and the two frontrunners to succeed Johnson, Rishi Sunak and Liz Truss, have both stated that any government regulation to curb harmful content must also protect the freedom of speech. To illustrate the challenging trade-offs related to misinformation and disinformation, below is a summary of three significant points of controversy the Online Safety Bill faces, as well as some considerations from concurrent efforts to tackle false content across other governments.


Disinformation and freedom of expression during armed conflict

UN Web TV. October 19, 2022  

At the 77th Session of the UN Human Rights Council, the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression presented her new report on disinformation and freedom of opinion and expression during armed conflicts.


Disinformation Day 2022 Considers Pressing Need for Cross-sector Collaboration and New Tools for Fact Checkers

University of Texas. Stacey Ingram-Kaleh. November 9, 2022

October 26, 2022 marked the first annual Disinformation Day hosted by Good Systems’ “Designing Responsible AI Technologies to Curb Disinformation” research team. Approximately 150 attendees from across the globe came together virtually to discuss challenges and opportunities in curbing the spread of digital disinformation. Thought leaders representing a range of disciplines and sectors examined the needs of fact checkers, explored issues of bias, fairness, and justice in mis- and disinformation, and outlined next steps for addressing these pressing issues together.


EMIF awards €5.7M for projects fighting disinformation in 2022

European university Institute. November 3, 2022.

In its first year of activity, the European Media and Information Fund (EMIF) has distributed €5,751,721 in grants supporting 33 projects aimed at countering disinformation across the continent.

The fund launched its first call for proposals in November 2021 to support fact-checking activities in Europe. This first initiative was followed by three further calls across three priority areas: “Multidisciplinary Investigations on Disinformation in Europe,” “Supporting Research into Media, Disinformation and Information Literacy Across Europe,” and “Media and Information Literacy for Citizens Empowerment.” Moreover, right after the invasion of Ukraine by the Russian army, EMIF issued a special call to encourage fact-checking projects addressing conflict-related disinformation.


WMGIC x NATO Countering Disinformation Challenge 2022

William and Mary. October 21, 2022.

Hundreds of undergraduate students across the NATO Alliance united for a seven-hour case Challenge to address and counter disinformation in one of seven realms, each competing to develop the most comprehensive and innovative solution that can be put into practice.

During the challenge and over seven hours, teams worked with expert mentors in one of seven topics: Russia-Ukraine War, Public Health, Climate Change: Clean Energy, Climate Change & Climate Security, Artificial Intelligence, Gender-Based Violence and Terrorism.

Mentors guided students as they discussed and deliberated their proposed plan of action, and have backgrounds in government, industry, academia, and other disciplines.


Collaboration is key to countering online misinformation about noncommunicable diseases –new WHO/Europe toolkit shows how

World Health Organization. October 22, 2022.

The spread of health-related misinformation poses a growing threat to societies, with more and more people turning to search engines or social media for their health information. Misguided perceptions of health risks – such as smoking, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets or physical inactivity – can lead to numerous life-changing and potentially deadly noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) like cancer or diabetes.

WHO/Europe’s new “Toolkit for tackling misinformation on noncommunicable diseases” explores why current measures implemented in the European Region are not achieving optimal results, and makes recommendations on collaborative action to better protect people from misinformation.


Hearing on “Foreign interference and disinformation in enlargement countries”

Committees European Parliament. October 10, 2022.

Members will exchange views with experts on interference and disinformation in the enlargement countries, in particular those located in the Western Balkans. The hearing will be held against the background of a flare-up of tensions in Bosnia-Herzegovina and to the geopolitical context of Serbia, where polls show a majority of pro-Russian opinions.


New pro-China disinformation campaign targets 2022 elections: Report

Axios. Sam Sabin. October 26, 2022.

Researchers at Google-owned Mandiant said in a report Wednesday that they've detected a group attempting to sow division in the U.S. and "operating in support of the political interests of the People’s Republic of China."

Mandiant's information adds to growing reports that pro-China actors are interested in influencing and disrupting next month's elections — although there's no evidence they've been successful.


Pro-PRC DRAGONBRIDGE Influence Campaign Leverages New TTPs to Aggressively Target U.S. Interests, Including Midterm Elections

Mandiant Intelligence. October 26, 2022.

Mandiant has recently observed DRAGONBRIDGE, an influence campaign we assess with high confidence to be operating in support of the political interests of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), aggressively targeting the United States by seeking to sow division both between the U.S. and its allies and within the U.S. political system itself.


Czech War on Disinformation is Still Mostly Talk

Reporting Democracy. Tim Gosling. November 9, 2022.

The recent huge cost-of-living protests – organized by extremist, pro-Russian elements – was a wake-up call for a government that seems to have forgotten its earlier pledge to build a blueprint to fight back against disinformation.


20 Young Changemakers Join the Fight against Misinformation and Disinformation in ASEAN

Asean Foundation. October 10, 2022.

ASEAN Foundation, with support from the US Mission to ASEAN and, proudly officiated today 20 members of the ASEAN Youth Advisory Group (ASEAN YAG) who will lead an awareness-raising campaign to combat misinformation and disinformation across ASEAN.

ASEAN is not immune to the threat of misinformation and disinformation. With increasing internet penetration across the ASEAN region, information has a powerful role in society, but there is a lag in awareness of how to identify misleading information. The members of ASEAN YAG will play pivotal roles in bridging this gap by spreading awareness about the importance of digital literacy in their communities through creative, and, most importantly, localised approach.


Social media failing to keep up with Brazil electoral disinformation, rights groups say

Reuters. Steven Grattan. October 28, 2022.

Human rights groups and researchers have raised concerns in Brazil that social media platforms are failing to effectively police disinformation ahead of a highly polarized presidential vote on Sunday.

Brazil's Superior Electoral Court (TSE) bolstered measures this month to tackle disinformation around the election, especially on video-sharing platforms. Sunday's runoff vote pits far-right President Jair Bolsonaro against leftist former President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.


Turkish lawmakers ratify new disinformation bill

Global Voices. Arzu Geybullayeva. October 2022

Turkish lawmakers approved a bill on October 13 purportedly meant to combat fake news and disinformation, but local civil society organizations describe the bill as an underhanded censorship or disinformation bill which will be used to squash dissent and criticism. Critics of the bill say the 40-article legislation passed by Turkey's parliament is a threat to freedom of speech and could have disastrous consequences ahead of Turkey's 2023 election.


The Truth in Fake News: How Disinformation Laws Are Reframing the Concepts of Truth and Accuracy on Digital Platforms

BRILL: In European Convention on Human Rights Law Review. Paolo Cavaliere. October 11, 2022

The European Union’s (EU) strategy to address the spread of disinformation, and most notably the Code of Practice on Disinformation and the forthcoming Digital Services Act, tasks digital platforms with a range of actions to minimize the distribution of issue-based and political adverts that are verifiable false or misleading. This article discusses the implications of the EU’s approach with a focus on its categorical approach, specifically what it means to conceptualize disinformation as a form of advertisement and by what standards digital platforms are expected to assess the truthful or misleading nature of the content that they distribute because of this categorization. The analysis will show how the emerging EU anti-disinformation framework marks a departure from the European Court of Human Rights consolidated standards of review for public interest and commercial speech and the tests utilized to assess their accuracy.


Musk’s Twitter takeover highlights disinformation risk

Emerald Insight. November 7, 2022

Musk has repeatedly said he wants the platform to prioritize ‘free speech,’ but has also reassured European regulators that he will be complying with local laws, even where they involve content screening. Although Twitter’s policy has yet to be finalized, the turmoil highlights the risks of online disinformation.

The business models of social media companies and tech platforms contain strong incentives that promote misinformation and disinformation. Advertising comprises 80% of the income of Google's parent company Alphabet, and well over 90% for Twitter and for Meta, the owner of Facebook and Instagram.

Social media offer advertisers hundreds of millions of users who are difficult to reach through other media. High levels of engagement ensure that the audience becomes 'captive'. Moreover, using data collected on users enables platforms to match advertisers and potential customers


Tackling disinformation: EU Commission steps up action among young people

Insight EU Monitoring. October 11, 2022.

Today, the Commission published Guidelines for teachers and educators in primary and secondary schools, on how to address disinformation and promote digital literacy in their classrooms. The guidelines provide practical support for teachers and educators and include definitions of technical concepts, class exercises and how to encourage healthy online habits. This toolkit covers three main topics: building digital literacy, tackling disinformation, and assessing and evaluating digital literacy.

Currently in Europe, one in three 13-year-old students lack basic digital skills when directly tested, and according to the OECD, only a little over half of 15-year-olds in the EU reported being taught how to detect whether information is subjective or biased. There is consequently a clear need to strengthen the role of education and training in tackling disinformation and promoting digital literacy as well as media literacy. It will increase resiliency and the possibility to fight the impact of online disinformation more effectively.


Misinformation confuses Qatar 2022 World Cup fans

Atalayar. Jose Toril. November 18, 2022

The World Cup in Qatar has been receiving all kinds of rejection for years. With just a few days to go before it kicks off, there is concern about the consequences of acting against the strict Qatari laws. Disinformation is trying to mislead fans travelling to Qatar or following the event from home. Alleged prison sentences for flying the rainbow flag or that alcohol will not be allowed to be drunk are among them.


Resilience Against Disinformation: A New Baltic Way to Follow?

RKK ICDS. October 20, 2022.

The Baltic states, although not immune to disinformation, have accumulated unique experience and developed effective methods to resist and combat this malice.

This report is based on in-depth semi-structured interviews and supplementary surveys conducted with the representatives of several clusters – media, civil society organizations, state institutions, think-tanks/academia and business communities. It aims to assess risks and vulnerabilities, as well as the three nations’ preparedness to counteract foreign-led disinformation. This report also reviews the existing indices that lead to a greater understanding of the intricate nature and interdependence of resilience-shaping factors at various levels, while contributing the unique Baltic perspective to the evolving, global study of disinformation.


How Disinformation Splintered and Became More Intractable

New York Times. Steven Lee Myers & Sheera Frenkel. October 20, 2022.

On the morning of July 8, former President Donald J. Trump took to Truth Social, a social media platform he founded with people close to him, to claim that he had in fact won the 2020 presidential vote in Wisconsin, despite all evidence to the contrary.

The spread of Mr. Trump’s claim illustrates how, ahead of this year’s midterm elections, disinformation has metastasized since experts began raising alarms about the threat. Despite years of efforts by the media, by academics and even by social media companies themselves to address the problem, it is arguably more pervasive and widespread today.


How to Outsmart Election Disinformation

ProPublica. Karim & Cynthia Gordy Giwa. October 21, 2022.

It’s time to talk about misinformation. You already know it’s all around us, but understanding how to spot it and defend against it is one of the most important parts of being an informed and active voter.


How to Report Election Misinformation and Disinformation Online

Asian Americans Advancing Justice. October 28, 2022.

Mis- and disinformation about elections is harmful to our democracy. If you see content online about elections that could suppress or mislead voters, you can report it. Read through our easily shareable cheat sheet to learn how to report disinformation on different platforms, dos and don'ts of reporting disinfo, and key definitions.


Why Spanish-language mis- and disinformation is a huge issue in 2022.

Brookings. Gabriel R. Sanchez & Carly Bennett. November 4, 2022.

As prepare for election night, it will be important to consider the impact that misleading and biased information has on the voting behaviour of the public. This post draws from a conversation we had with Dr. Nicole Turner Lee for the TechTank podcast which focused on the implications of misinformation targeting Latinos, with a particular emphasis on Spanish-language media.


Truth Cops: Leaked Documents Outline DHS’s Plans to Police Disinformation

The Intercept. Ken Klippenstein & Lee Fang. October 31, 2022

The Department of Homeland Security is quietly broadening its efforts to curb speech it considers dangerous, an investigation by The Intercept has found. Years of internal DHS memos, emails, and documents — obtained via leaks and an ongoing lawsuit, as well as public documents — illustrate an expansive effort by the agency to influence tech platforms.


Hoax in the Machine: Disinformation Against Voting Systems Manufacturers and Technologies in the 2022 US Midterm Elections

Recorded Future. November 7, 20223.

This report presents Recorded Future’s insights and assessments on disinformation and influence efforts targeting United States (US)-deployed voting technologies up to, during, and in the aftermath of the 2022 midterms, including electronic voting systems, voting machines, and various Election Assistance Commission-approved software and hardware used in the administration of US elections at the local, state, and federal levels. While we acknowledge that voting technologies have faced a long history of criticisms in the US, we intentionally focus this report on election infrastructure disinformation and influence efforts generated between the 2020 general election and the 2022 midterm elections.


Experts grade Facebook, TikTok, Twitter, YouTube on readiness to handle midterm election misinformation

The Conversation. October 26, 2022.

The 2016 U.S. election was a wake-up call about the dangers of political misinformation on social media. With two more election cycles rife with misinformation under their belts, social media companies have experienced identifying and countering misinformation. However, the nature of the threat misinformation poses to society continues to shift in form and targets. The big lie about the 2020 presidential election has become a major theme, and immigrant communities are increasingly in the crosshairs of disinformation campaigns – deliberate efforts to spread misinformation.

Social media companies have announced plans to deal with misinformation in the 2022 midterm elections, but the companies vary in their approaches and effectiveness. We asked experts on social media to grade how ready Facebook, TikTok, Twitter and YouTube are to handle the task.


Misinformation and hate are trending in this election year

CNN Politics. Zachary B. Wolf. October 31, 2022

Misinformation is trending now that Elon Musk, the self-described “Chief Twit,” has bought Twitter, his favourite social media platform.

Meanwhile, displays of hate are breaking out in public now that Kanye West, who now goes by Ye, has despicably fashioned himself as a folk hero for those spewing antisemitic messages, pushing his own anti-Jewish conspiracy theories.

The stories dovetail not just because they are built on the wild spread of false claims, but also because West’s Twitter account – locked in early October for an antisemitic tweet in which he said he was going “death con 3 on Jewish people” – was recently reactivated. More on that below.


Turkey: “Dark day for online free expression” as new ‘disinformation law’ is passed

Amnesty International. October 13, 2022

Responding to the Turkish parliament passing the so-called disinformation law which tightens government’s grip over social media platforms and news websites while criminalizing the sharing of information that is deemed false, Güney Yildiz, Regional Researcher at Amnesty International, said: “Today is yet another dark day for online freedom of expression and press freedom in Turkey. Coming on the heels of the government’s increased control of the media over the last few years, these new measures enable them to further censor and silence critical voices ahead of Turkey’s upcoming elections and beyond, under the guise of fighting disinformation.

“In fact, rather than ensuring information safety, the law’s vaguely defined provisions facilitate further the prosecution of those who allegedly publicly disseminate ‘false information’ and could see people facing jail terms of up to three years merely for a retweet.


Disinformation Attacks Threaten US Midterm Elections

Dark Reading. Robert Lemos. October 17, 2022

While traditional cyberattack operations against US government organizations have remained fairly consistent, influence and disinformation attacks by foreign nations have increased in the run-up to the US midterm elections.

On the cyberattack front, the China-linked hacking group Budworm has targeted several government agencies, including the legislature for a US state, over the past six months, according to Symantec, part of Broadcom Software. The attack on a US government organization is the second recent incident — after a hiatus of more than six years — where the group has targeted a US private-sector agency, the company's researchers stated in an advisory.


Dark Money Political Ads Proliferate on Facebook and Instagram Ahead of the U.S. Midterms, Enabled by the Platforms’ Policies

NewsGuard Misinformation Monitor. Lorenzo Arvanitis and McKenzie Sadeghi. October 2022.

“Pink slime” newsrooms secretly backed by partisan donors are spending big on Facebook and Instagram ads in battleground states, taking advantage of the Meta platforms’ ad-targeting tools and advertising policies.

NewsGuard’s analysis of Meta’s Ad Library identified thousands of ads from the four pink slime groups promoting either Democrats or Republicans and focusing on hot-button issues, such as abortion, inflation, education, and crime. The ads, which were disguised as articles from local news publications, and which ran on Facebook and Instagram.....

Meta says that it is committed to “protecting elections and increasing authenticity, transparency and accountability for advertisers,” according to “The Election Integrity at Meta” page. However, by providing the ideological networks with powerful tools to target audiences in battleground states, with loose standards that can be manipulated by partisan actors, Meta has in fact been contributing to the deception.


Coalition Sends Letter Urging Social Media Platforms to Prevent Online Election Disinformation

Legal Defence Fund. October 13, 2022

Today, LDF and a coalition of civil rights, public interest, voting rights, and other organizations, sent a letter urging social media companies to take immediate steps to curb the spread of voting disinformation in the midterms and future elections and to help prevent the undermining of our democracy. This letter is a follow up to another sent last May. Many companies have announced updates to their voter interference and disinformation policies in recent weeks but the policies have little effect unless enforced continually and consistently.


COVID-19 Misinformation: The Flip Side of ‘Knowledge is Power’

Penn Medicine. Frank Otto. October 25, 2022.

Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, the phrase “Knowledge is power” has taken on significant meaning. While it’s typically associated with a force of good — the more someone knows about something they can do to make a positive difference in their lives or others’ — it’s becoming clear through recent ongoing research that many have underestimated the force of knowledge that doesn’t originate from the truth.

The term “infodemic” — which has its very own page on the World Health Organization’s website — became common parlance for the exponential way in which COVID-19 misinformation spreads. Every part of the pandemic seemed to have its own piece of untruth or lie to go with it, ranging from the disease’s origins to treatments and the vaccines that have dulled COVID-19’s impact.

This misinformation has hurt people: An early study estimated that one rumour, which had to do with drinking highly concentrated alcohol-based cleaning products as a “cure” for COVID-19, led to more than 5,800 people being hospitalized (with 800 dying) from January through March of 2020 alone.


Social Media and the 2022 Midterm Elections: Anticipating Online Threats to Democratic Legitimacy

Centre for American Progress.E. Simpson,A. Conner, A. Maciolek. November 3, 2022.

Social media companies continue to allow attacks on U.S. democracy to proliferate on their platforms, undermining election legitimacy, fuelling hate and violence, and sowing chaos.

This issue brief outlines what is needed from social media companies and identifies three of the top threats they pose to the 2022 midterm elections—the season opener for the 2024 presidential election.


Canada hits back at Russian disinformation with entertainment sanctions

National Observer. Dylan Robertson. October 18, 2022

Canada is sanctioning 34 individuals and a television network in Russia that the federal government considers "propaganda agents," Foreign Affairs Minister Mélanie Joly announced Monday. In the latest update to Canada's sanctions regime, Joly said Ottawa is targeting those responsible for Russian disinformation as the war in Ukraine nears the nine-month mark. The people on the list have tried to justify Russia's illegal attempts to annex parts of Ukraine, she said.


Closing Session, Committee on Information Approves Texts Urging Greater Cooperation to Fight Disinformation, Build Developing Countries’ Communications Infrastructure

United Nations. May 4, 2023.

The United Nations Committee on Information — concluding its forty-fifth session today — approved two resolutions detailing Member States’ priorities for the Department of Global Communications, from combating disinformation, misinformation and information manipulation to reduce disparities in information flows by enhancing assistance for developing countries.


Equipping health workers, media to fight misinformation on cholera

WHO. May 18, 2023.

In Malawi, media training events have been running since February 2023, reaching over 120 journalists, alongside significant efforts to engage communities online and offline, including videos on social media, to help mitigate the spread of harmful misinformation in order to bring the outbreak under control. The videos, produced in multiple languages, were viewed nearly 23 million times on WHO Africa’s Facebook account alone.


Brazil pushes back on big tech firms' campaign against 'fake news law'

Reuters. Anthony Boadle. May 2, 2023.

Brazil's government and judiciary objected on Tuesday to big tech firms campaigning against an internet regulation bill aimed at cracking down on fake news, alleging undue interference in the debate in Congress. Bill 2630, also known as the Fake News Law, puts the onus on the internet companies, search engines and social messaging services to find and report illegal material, instead of leaving it to the courts, charging hefty fines for failures to do so.


Nobel Prize Summit Fuels Initiatives to Combat Misinformation and Disinformation and Build Trust in Science

National Academies. June 22, 2023.

An explosion of misinformation and disinformation have weakened public deliberation and undermined confidence in science, even as the world faces interconnecting crises such as war, climate change, and the pandemic and other health emergencies. To take on this “misinfodemic,” the Nobel Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences hosted the Nobel Prize Summit Truth, Trust and Hope, bringing together Nobel Prize laureates, researchers, policymakers, and citizens for an in-depth exploration of how to combat misinformation and build trust in science, scientists, and the institutions they serve.


National Counter Disinformation Strategy Working Group

Government of Ireland. March 30, 2023.

The development of a National Counter Disinformation Strategy is a key recommendation from the Future of Media Commission (FoMC) which called for a more coordinated and strategic approach to combat the damaging impact of disinformation on Irish society and democracy. The new strategy will be informed by Ireland’s existing media literacy initiatives, domestic legislation such as the Online Safety and Media Regulation Act and European regulatory measures including the Digital Services Act.


Fact Sheet on the UK’s Government’s Counber-Disinformation and Rapid Response Unit.

UK Government. June 9, 2023.

A number of media reports have appeared in recent days concerning the government’s Counter Disinformation Unit.

Here you can read the facts about how it operates and what it does and does not do. It also includes information on the Rapid Response Unit, which was closed in summer 2022.


Disinformation and online political violence against women in Brazil

Wison Center. Paula Tavares and Gustavo Borges. September 19, 2023.

Gendered disinformation, a distinct form of online gender-based abuse, employs deceptive narratives rooted in gender biases. It predominantly targets women, seeking to dissuade them from active public engagement. This insidious strategy typically combines has elements: falsehood, malicious intent, and coordination, and is often used to achieve political outcomes.


U.S. and Bulgaria to Collaborate on Combatting Disinformation

U.S. Department of State. September 25, 2023.

The United States and Bulgaria signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that increases cooperation to counter foreign information manipulation. The MOU – signed by Under Secretary of State for Public Affairs and Public Diplomacy Liz Allen and Bulgarian Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Mariya Gabriel – provides a strong foundation for both countries to work together against the spread of disinformation and media manipulation, an increasing threat in Central and Eastern Europe.


Launch of public consultation on National Counter Disinformation

Strategy Government of Ireland. September 25, 2023.

The Minister for Tourism, Culture, Arts, Gaeltacht, Sport and Media, Catherine Martin, today welcomed the launch of a public consultation on the development of a National Counter Disinformation Strategy.

As part of their report, the Future of Media Commission recognized the need for more coordinated and strategic action to combat the damaging impact of disinformation on Irish society and democracy. Therefore, they recommended the development of a National Counter Disinformation Strategy.


Fourth Committee, Concluding Debate on Information Matters, Approves Draft Texts on UN

Communications, Press Freedom United Nations. October 19, 2023.

The Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization), acting without a vote, approved two draft resolutions today, focused on press freedom, access to information in developing States and the work of the Department of Global Communications, as it concluded its debate on questions related to information.


Big little lies? Disinformation in the 2023 election campaign

Victoria University of Wellington. October 12, 2023.

Three weeks into the 2023 New Zealand Social Media Study (NZSMS), 2,437 Facebook posts by political parties and their leaders have been analysed by Dr Mona Krewel, director of the Internet, Social Media and Politics Research Lab at Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington, and her team. The posts were made in the period from 11 September to 1 October.

The researchers have dug into the data to find out which parties are using disinformation, the political tactics they’re employing, and the groups that disinformation posts are attacking.


Thematic Session on Risk Communication, Misinformation and Disinformation

The World Trade Organization. November 14, 2023.

An SPS Committee Thematic Session on Risk Communication, Misinformation and Disinformation was held on the margins of its November 2023 Committee meeting. The thematic session explored the concepts surrounding information manipulation and their relevance within the context and implementation of the SPS Agreement. Speakers focused on the evolution of misinformation and disinformation, including its possible effect on policy decisions, how it is being deployed around agricultural food safety issues, and how Members can identify and address it at early stages.


China is using the world’s largest known online disinformation operation to harass Americans, a CNN review finds

CNN. Donie O’Sullivan, Curt Devine & Allison Gordon. November 13, 2023.

The Chinese government has built up the world’s largest known online disinformation operation and is using it to harass US residents, politicians, and businesses—at times threatening its targets with violence, a CNN review of court documents and public disclosures by social media companies has found.


The Kremlin’s Efforts to Covertly Spread Disinformation in Latin America

U.S. Embassy in Honduras. November 7, 2023.

The Russian government is currently financing an on-going, well-funded disinformation campaign across Latin America. The Kremlin’s campaign plans to leverage developed media contacts in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay, among other countries in Latin America, in order to carry out an information manipulation campaign designed to surreptitiously exploit the openness of Latin America’s media and information environment. The Kremlin’s ultimate goal appears to be to launder its propaganda and disinformation through local media in a way that feels organic to Latin American audiences to undermine support for Ukraine and propagate anti-U.S. and anti-NATO sentiment.


US celebrities unwittingly recruited to undermine Moldova’s president

DFRLAb. Victoria Olari. February 15, 2024.

Pro-Russian propagandists solicited US celebrities on Cameo to record videos calling for the downfall of Moldovan President Maia Sandu.

In late 2023, Maia Sandu, the president of Moldova and a frequent target of pro-Russian propaganda and political attacks, found herself the target of a fairly novel attack campaign: US celebrities, all of whom offer personalized recordings through online platform Cameo, calling for her to be “brought down” in Russian.


6 February 2024: Off-Shor Disinformation: The pro-Russian Facebook ad campaign disrupting Moldova’s EU accession

The webinar on 6 February uncovered the intricate web of deception woven by EU/US-sanctioned oligarch Ilan Shor and his pro-Russian party in their relentless bid to sabotage Moldova’s aspirations for EU membership. RESET, in a joint investigation with, discovered the largest Moldovan paid ad campaign witnessed on Facebook in 2023, including coordinated inauthentic behaviour and glaring violations of platform policies.


Euroviews. Social media empowers disinformation operations. What can the EU do about it?

EuroNews. Domonkos D. Kovacs. March 19, 2024

Brussels has started to recognise that social media platforms are not just digital town squares, but the profit-driven allies of the enemies of democracy. It is high time to act accordingly, Domonkos D Kovacs writes.

On 26 January, news broke that digital forensic experts had unearthed a major Russian disinformation operation targeted at the German government.


EU announces grant call to support media and building public resilience to disinformation in Moldova

EU Neighbours East. March 2024

The European Commission has announced a grant call to support the media in Moldova and to build the country’s public resilience to disinformation. The main objective of this call is to contribute to the reforms in the area of media and to the public’s resilience to disinformation. The call is divided into two lots: support for independent and free media and support for public resilience to disinformation.


Mapping a Surge of Disinformation in Africa

African Center for Strategic Studies. March 13, 2024

Disinformation campaigns seeking to manipulate African information systems have surged nearly fourfold since 2022, triggering destabilizing and antidemocratic consequences.

The proliferation of disinformation is a fundamental challenge to stable and prosperous African societies. The scope of these intentional efforts to distort the information environment for a political end is accelerating. The 189 documented disinformation campaigns in Africa are nearly quadruple the number reported in 2022. Given the opaque nature of disinformation, this figure is surely an undercount.


Meeting COVID-19 Misinformation and Disinformation Head-On

John Hopkins. December 6, 2022.

Long before SARS-CoV-2 was identified, misinformation and disinformation about a plethora of health topics have run rampant online. There’s a distinct difference between the two: Misinformation is a broader classification of false or inaccurate claims shared largely unwittingly and without the intention to deceive. Disinformation is a specific subset of misinformation created with deliberate intentions to deceive. Both have caused significant and real harm throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Report: Impact of disinformation on democracy in Asia

Brookings. Jessica Brandtt, Maika Ichihara, et al. December 2022.

In Asia and around the world, disinformation campaigns — perpetrated by foreign actors seeking to shore up power at home and weaken their competitors abroad and by domestic actors seeking political advantage — are increasingly putting pressure on democratic societies. This pressure manifests through several pathways.

Russian War Report: Wagner Group fights French ‘zombies’ in cartoon propaganda

Atlantic Council. Digital Forsensic Lab. Jan 2, 2023

As Russia continues its assault on Ukraine, the Atlantic Council’s Digital Forensic Research Lab (DFRLab) is keeping a close eye on Russia’s movements across the military, cyber, and information domains. With more than seven years of experience monitoring the situation in Ukraine, as well as Russia’s use of propaganda and disinformation to undermine the United States, NATO, and the European Union (EU), DFRLab’s global team presents the latest installment of the Russian War Report.

'Deny, deflect, distract': How Russia spreads disinformation about the war in Ukraine

CBC. Alexandra Zabjek. January 22, 2023.

When a missile struck a nine-storey apartment building in the southern Ukrainian city of Dnipro last week, Yevhen Fedchenko knew what to expect from Russian news coverage of the strike. "They immediately started to build disinformation narratives on the top of the story, first of all accusing Ukraine of doing that," Fedchenko told CBC Radio's The House in an interview.

Visiting Legal scholars discuss intersections of Misinformation and Law

Center for an Informed Public. December 2022.

As part of the Center for an Informed Public’s ongoing interdisciplinary work exploring the ways mis- and disinformation shapes and is shaped by law and policy, we’ve hosted prominent legal scholars to interface with the CIP’s community in Seattle — our faculty members, researchers, students and other on-campus colleagues — through meetings, special talks and other exchanges of ideas, and here, in a Q&A series with various visiting legal fellows.

Fault Lines: The Expert Panel on the Socioeconomic Impacts of Science and Health Misinformation

Council of Canadian Academics. January 26, 2023.

Misinformation can cause significant harm to individuals, communities, and societies. Because it’s designed to appeal to our emotions and exploit our cognitive shortcuts, everyone is susceptible to it. We are particularly vulnerable to misinformation in times of crisis when the consequences are most acute. Science and health misinformation damages our community well-being through otherwise preventable illnesses, deaths, and economic losses, and our social well-being through polarization and the erosion of public trust. These harms often fall most heavily on the most vulnerable.

COVID-19 misinformation contributed to 2,800 Canadian deaths, report suggests

CTV News. January 26, 2023.

A new report says misinformation about COVID-19 contributed to more than 2,800 Canadian deaths and at least $300 million in hospital and ICU visits.  The Council of Canadian Academies says misinformation led to people not believing COVID-19 was real or was exaggerated, fostering vaccine hesitancy.  This report suggests that the belief that COVID-19 was a "hoax or exaggerated" led to 2.35 million people delaying or refusing to get the vaccine between March and November of 2021.

As Dr. Anthony Fauci leaves public service, he fears health misinformation

ABC News. December 13, 2022.

After over 50 years working in public service, Dr. Anthony Fauci is stepping down at the end of the month, though he's not retiring. Fauci told ABC News he wants to do something outside of federal work while he still has the health, vitality and drive to do so. And as he gets ready to leave as the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and as President Joe Biden's chief medical advisor, one of the things that worries him the most about the state of science and medicine in the misinformation.

French TV regulator urges Eutelsat to stop broadcasting three Russian channels

EURACTIV. December 15, 2022.

French broadcasting authority Arcom on Wednesday (14 December) urged satellite company Eutelsat to stop carrying three Russian TV channels, whose coverage of the war in Ukraine included “repeated incitement to hatred and violence and numerous shortcomings in honesty of information.”

Russia vows to retaliate after RT accounts frozen in France

EURACTIV. January 23, 2023.

Moscow will retaliate against French media in Russia after the bank accounts of RT France, the French arm of its state broadcaster, were frozen, Russian news agencies quoting an anonymous foreign ministry source reported Saturday (21 January). Hours later, the director of the channel in France announced that it would have to shut down as a consequence.

US panel accuses ‘Big Oil’ of disinformation over climate plans

Aljazeera. December 9, 2022.

A United States congressional committee has accused oil companies of spreading “disinformation” and “lying” about their climate change mitigation efforts by obscuring their long-term investments in fossil fuels.

Russian disinformation is demonizing Ukrainian refugees

The Washington Post. Loveday Morris & Will Oremus. December 8, 2022

On social media, pro-Kremlin networks are exploiting German anger over its energy crisis to undermine support for Ukraine.   As Russian forces continue to shell Ukrainian cities, pro-Kremlin propagandists have homed in on a new target: turning Europeans against the 7.8 million Ukrainian refugees who make up the continent’s largest displacement since World War II. In doing so, Russia’s disinformation merchants are needling at deep-seated European fault lines over immigration, echoing how Russia-linked operatives famously exploited major U.S. social media platforms to sow division around topics such as race ahead of the 2016 presidential election.


2022 Disinformation in Canada Survey

Leger. December 13, 2022.


In partnership with the Institute for Public Relations (IPR) and McMaster University, Leger conducted a national survey of more than 2,000 Canadians to explore their perspectives on disinformation in Canada. The findings reveal how disinformation is spread in Canada (with some comparisons to the U.S.), the power and perceptions of disinformation, including its impact on trust in society and who should be responsible for combatting it. It is based on the annual Institute for Public Relations Disinformation in Society report conducted in the United States.


Lublin Triangle NGOs present in Brussels a joint report on Russian disinformation and propaganda

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. December 6, 2022.


On 6 December 2022, three non-governmental organisations from Lithuania, Poland, and Ukraine, namely the Civic Resilience Initiative, Kosciuszko Institute and Detector Media, presented in Brussels during the EU - Ukraine Forum on Countering Disinformation a joint in-depth report highlighting the challenges emanating from Russian disinformation and propaganda activities in the Lublin Triangle countries. 


Concern as US media hit with wave of layoffs amid rise of disinformation

The Guardian. Lauren Aratani. December 10, 2022.


A wave of layoffs have hit the beleaguered American media industry as several major companies, including CNN, BuzzFeed and Gannett, have laid off hundreds of workers in recent weeks citing economic volatility and uncertainty. The job losses are the first major slate of cuts since the beginning of the pandemic, when a handful of companies laid off workers over the unpredictability of Covid’s impact on the economy. As the economy rebounded with the introduction of the Covid vaccine in 2021, the news industry saw the lowest number of layoffs in years.





DeBriefed 7 July 2023: World’s run of hottest days; Shipping’s climate reckoning; Revival for climate misinformation

Carbon Brief. Joe Goodman. July 7 2023.

An essential guide to the week’s key developments relating to climate change. Carbon Brief speaks to Jennie King, head of climate research and policy at the Institute of Strategic Dialogue (ISD), about the revival of online climate misinformation ahead of the next round of UN climate talks.


From oil ads to Russian interference: These are the climate lies to look out for at COP28

Euronews. Lottie Limb. November 29, 2023.

Misinformation is exacerbating the climate crisis, experts warn as world leaders prepare to meet for COP28 in Dubai. In 2023, any lingering doubts about the scientific facts of climate change and the imperative to address them seem to have dissipated. However, a report by the Climate Action Against Disinformation (CAAD) coalition highlights a resurgence of outright denial and the emergence of new insidious tactics by major oil entities and deceptive actors online.


Global Risks 2024: Disinformation Tops Global Risks 2024 as Environmental Threats Intensify

World Economic Forum. January 10, 2024.

Drawing on nearly two decades of original risks perception data, the World Economic Forum’s Global Risks Report 2024 warns of a global risks landscape in which progress in human development is being chipped away slowly, leaving states and individuals vulnerable to new and resurgent risks. Against a backdrop of systemic shifts in global power dynamics, climate, technology and demographics, global risks are stretching the world’s adaptative capacity to its limit.


Davos 2024: Extreme Weather and Misinformation Top Global Risks

U.S. News. Victoria Waldersee. January 10, 2024.

Risk specialists see extreme weather and misinformation as most likely to trigger a global crisis in the next couple of years, a World Economic Forum (WEF) survey released on Wednesday said. While extreme weather was identified as the bigger risk in 2024, misinformation and disinformation came second and were found to be the most severe global risk over the next two years.



Middle East Conflict

PODCAST: The Take: Censorship and disinformation – the online war on Gaza

Aljazeera. October 23, 2023.

Social media have been one of the few available ways for Palestinians to tell their stories under the Israeli occupation and blockade. But censorship and account suspensions threaten that outlet. As the war on Gaza escalates, social media companies have tightened their grip further. This is mixed with the rapid spread of disinformation and conflicting narratives like those about the deadly blast at the al-Ahli Arab Hospital in Gaza. So how far is disinformation and censorship steering the conflict?


“Beheaded Babies” Report Spread Wide and Fast – But Israel Military Won’t Confirm it.

The Intercept. Alice Speri. October 11, 2023.

The claim about beheaded babies is the latest in a series of harrowing reports that have emerged over the last few days while Israeli forces regained control of communities attacked by Hamas militants. As Israeli officials responded by pledging vengeance and launching a mass bombing campaign over 2 million Palestinians living in the besieged Gaza Strip, reports of Hamas crimes against civilians fueled rage among the public, elected officials, and policymakers.


EU gives Meta and TikTok formal Hamas disinformation deadline

BBC. Tom Gerken. October 19, 2023.

TikTok and Meta have been formally told to provide the EU with information about the possible spread of disinformation on their platforms relating to the Israel-Gaza conflict.


Tired of disinformation, some EU politicians dream of ‘bluer’ skies

Euractiv.Théophane Hartmann. October 12, 2023.

With a spike in disinformation on the Israel-Hamas conflict challenging social media platforms and EU institutions tasked with enforcing new content moderation standards, some politicians are considering moving to different platforms.

In the wake of the attacks on Israel by Hamas on 7 October – which has seen a rapid proliferation of disinformation online – Commissioner for the Internal Market Thierry Breton published an open letter to Facebook, Instagram and X.


EU’s Breton urges Musk to tackle spread of disinformation on X after Hamas attack

Euractiv. Théophane Hartmann. October 11, 2023.

Following Hamas’ assault on Israel, EU Commissioner Thierry Breton urged Elon Musk, the owner of social media platform X, to tackle disinformation posted there “within 24 hours” amid growing signs of the EU’s vexation with the platform formerly known as Twitter.


Brand Danger: X and Misinformation Super-spreaders Share Ad Money from False or Egregiously Misleading Claims About the Israel-Hamas War

NewsGuard. Jack Nrewster, Coalter Palmer et al. November 22, 2023.

On X, programmatic ads appear below viral posts spreading false claims about the Israel-Hamas war. Shockingly, a new ad revenue sharing program rewards these misinformation spreaders with a portion of income from major brands, governments, and non-profits.


Disinformation Bulletin 98: #PALESTINE

DMN: Presidency of the Republic of Turkiye. November 8, 2023.

The Disinformation Bulletin, dated November 8, 2023, and centered around the theme "Palestine Exclusive," was released by the Center for Countering Disinformation within their Directorate.


The war on Gaza: A masterclass in disinformation

Aljazeera. Danylo Hawaleshka. November 9, 2023.

Israeli government tries to deflect responsibility, sow doubt as it seeks to define the narrative in the war on Gaza. History Illustrated is a weekly series of insightful perspectives that puts news events and current affairs into historical context using graphics generated with artificial intelligence.


The Digital Services Act and Palestinian Digital Rights: A Complex Intersection

Tech Policy Press. Itxaso Domínguez de Olazábal. November 6, 2023.

Amid the much-anticipated implementation of the Digital Services Act (DSA) as a cornerstone in fortifying digital rights for European Union (EU) citizens, a significant concern arises. While the text is heralded as a positive step in addressing illegal and harmful content, there is growing apprehension about its unintended repercussions on the digital rights of Palestinians and other vulnerable communities, notably those in the Global South. 7amleh-The Arab Center for the Advancement of Social Media has vigilantly monitored this issue since the onset of negotiations around the DSA, emphasizing the intricate relationship between the Israel/Palestine context, the Global South as a whole, and EU legislation.


Moscow theater shooting fans flames of a disinformation war

AP. Jim Heintz. March 25, 2024

Flames were still leaping from the Moscow concert hall besieged by gunmen when Russian officials began suggesting who was really to blame. They presented no evidence, only aspersions and suspicion and counterfactual speculation, but in Russia’s eyes the culprit was clear: Ukraine.

The allegations that Ukraine, now in its third year of fighting after Russia invaded, was behind Friday’s attack that killed at least 137 people, were the first salvo in a disinformation war that has clouded the hearts and minds of people trying to come to grips with the shocking attack.




Generative AI: A Double-Edged Sword in Shaping Canada’s Future Elections

The Niagara Independent. November 17, 2023

Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) stands poised to revolutionize the landscape of Canadian elections, promising both transformative advancements and worrisome challenges. As this technology rapidly evolves, its potential impact on the democratic process demands close scrutiny, navigating a complex terrain of opportunities and risks.


AI-powered disinformation is spreading — is Canada ready for the political impact?

CBC. Catherine Tunney. January 18, 2023.

The rise of deepfakes comes as billions of people around the world prepare to vote this year. Just days before Slovakia's national election last fall, a mysterious voice recording began spreading a lie online.

The manipulated file made it sound like Michal Simecka, leader of the Progressive Slovakia party, was discussing buying votes with a local journalist. But the conversation never happened; the file was later debunked as a "deepfake" hoax.


Disinformation can reinforce polarization in society

EurekaAlert. January 24, 2024.

With over four billion people eligible to vote in elections, 2024 is the largest election year ever. At the same time, disinformation and polarization on social media pose unprecedented challenges to the democratic process. New research from Aalto University and the University of Helsinki investigated how real-world shocks affect online discussions, using the Ukraine war and Finland’s NATO accession to understand how disinformation reinforces polarization.


Elections Canada launches online disinformation tool to prepare voters for next federal election

CBC. Peter Zimojic. January 12, 2024.

Elections Canada is trying to insulate Canadian voters from false narratives and information during the next federal election by launching an online tool to help voters cut through misinformation and disinformation about the electoral process in Canada.

The ElectoFacts website, launched this week, provides factual information to debunk the most common misconceptions observed by Elections Canada officials in recent years.


Meta unveils team to combat disinformation and AI harms in EU elections

Aljazeera. February 26, 2024.

Tech giant’s head of EU affairs says team will bring together experts from across the company. Facebook owner Meta has unveiled plans to launch a dedicated team to combat disinformation and harms generated by artificial intelligence (AI) ahead of the upcoming European Parliament elections.


EU Policy. TikTok sets up in-app ‘election centres’ to fight fake news

EuroNews. Cynthia Kroet. February 14, 2024.

Major online platforms must tackle disinformation, under new EU digital service rules that take effect Saturday. TikTok announced today (14 February) that it will set up what it calls in-app election centres for each of the 27 EU countries.

The move by the social media network is a bid to reduce the spread of online misinformation as the bloc goes to the polls in June. The tool will be available as of next month to ensure people can “separate fact from fiction”, Kevin Morgan, TikTok’s head of trust and safety for Europe, the Middle East and Africa, said in a statement.


AI and misinformation: what’s ahead for social media as the US election looms?

Guardian. Rachel Leingang. February 10, 2024.

Innovation is outpacing our ability to handle misinformation, experts say. That makes falsehoods easy to weaponize. As the United States’ fractured political system prepares for a tense election, social media companies may not be prepared for an onslaught of viral rumors and lies that could disrupt the voting process – an ongoing feature of elections in the misinformation age.


A Tech Accord to Combat Deceptive Use of AI in 2024 Elections

AI Elections accord. February 2024.

2024 will bring elections to more people than any year in history, with 40+ countries and more than four billion people choosing their leaders and representatives through the right to vote. At the same time, the rapid development of artificial intelligence, or AI, is creating new opportunities as well as challenges for the democratic process. All of society will have to lean into the opportunities afforded by AI and to take new steps together to protect elections and the electoral process during this exceptional year.


2024 will be the year of democracy - or disinformation

King’s Colledge London. Resham Kotecha & Elena Simpiri. February 27, 2024.

In this year of elections around the world, how will AI shape or harm democracies? The authors of this article explore the impact AI is already having, whether states are ready for the sheer volume of rule-breaking we might see and why everyone should take a more critical approach to what we see.

With nearly 2 billion people heading to the polls this year, 2024 is being touted as the year of democracy. Key elections are being held in the UK, the US, the EU, and India, with many other countries also set to hold elections over the course of the year. Along with many organisations working with data and AI, at the Open Data Institute, we’re cognisant of the vast opportunities - and significant challenges - that these technologies can play in shaping and harming our democracies.


Balance between fighting misinformation and protecting speech on social media gets more complicated.

CBS News. Leslie Stahl, et al. March 24, 2024

As the U.S. 2024 presidential election gets underway, social media companies are caught in an unenviable position: trying to stop the spread of misinformation while also facing more and more allegations of censorship.


Safeguarding Canadian Democracy in the age of growing digital disinformation

Policy Options. Bessma Momani & Shelly Ghai-Bajaj. March 5, 2024

A host of measures are needed to educate the Canadian public and improve the country’s ability to respond to information threats.

The stakes over the next year are higher than ever when it comes to security and defence challenges in the Canadian information ecosystem. With monumental elections on the horizon, numerous global risk reports have highlighted mis/disinformation among the top threats facing our interconnected societies.


2024 may be the year online disinformation finally gets the better of us

Politico, Seb Butcher. March 25, 2024

Around 64 countries are set to head to the polls this year, and the threat of AI-powered disinformation to democracy has never been more severe. Are our laws ready for what’s to come?

Key elections are scheduled to take place in the U.K., U.S., EU, India, South Africa, Mexico and a bevy of other countries, with nearly half of the world’s adult population heading to the polls this year. But even beyond the sheer number of elections taking place, there’s a feeling in the air that the stakes have never been higher. We’re seeing increasing political division and factional in-fighting within many nations, and there’s a firm sense — no thanks to the online world in which we all now live — that we’re becoming more polarized, more tribal and more intolerant of “the other side.”



Davos 2024: Extreme weather and misinformation top global risks

Reuters. Victoria Waldersee. January 11, 2024.

Risk specialists see extreme weather and misinformation as most likely to trigger a global crisis in the next couple of years, a World Economic Forum (WEF) survey released on Wednesday said.

While extreme weather was identified as the bigger risk in 2024, misinformation and disinformation came second and were found to be the most severe global risk over the next two years.


AI-driven misinformation ‘biggest short-term threat to global economy’

Guardian. Larry Elliott. January 10, 2024.

A wave of artificial intelligence-driven misinformation and disinformation that could influence key looming elections poses the biggest short-term threat to the global economy, the World Economic Forum (WEF) has said.

In a deeply gloomy assessment, the body that convenes its annual meeting in Davos next week expressed concern that politics could be disrupted by the spread of false information, potentially leading to riots, strikes and crackdowns on dissent from governments.



Give Denial the FLICC

Thinking is Power. January 2024.

The modern world was built by science. From medicine to agriculture to transportation to communication… Science’s importance is undeniable.

And yet, people deny science.

Not just any science, of course. (Gravity and cell theory are okay, so far.) We’re more motivated to deny conclusions that are perceived to conflict with our identity or ideology, or those in which we don’t like the solutions (i.e., solution aversion). For example, a few of the biggest denial movements today center around vaccines, GMOs (genetically modified organisms), evolution, and climate change, all of which intersect with religious beliefs, political ideology, personal freedoms, and government regulation.


Disinformation by Foreign Powers

US leading global alliance to counter foreign government disinformation

Guardian. Patrick Wintour. February 26, 2024.

Washington hopes more countries will join US, UK and Canada in signing agreement to define, identify and label such operations.

A global coalition of democracies is being formed to protect their societies from disinformation campaigns by foreign governments, the US special envoy on the issue has said.


Sen. Warner: U.S. is less prepared to secure the 2024 election than 2020

Cybeerscoop. Christian Vasquez. February 27, 2024.

The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence chair expressed concerns about foreign intervention this election cycle and chided Biden lawyers for taking a “cautious” approach on social media misinformation.


Foreign digital interference – Result of investigations into the Russian propaganda network Portal Kombat (15 February 2024)

France Diplomacy.

On February 12, Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs Stéphane Séjourné publicly revealed the discovery of a pro-Russian propaganda network called “Portal Kombat,” which was detected in the course of an investigation by the VIGINUM agency.

His disclosure was aimed at alerting the French public – as a precautionary measure – to the threat of disinformation disseminated by Russian actors ahead of the European elections.


Gendered Misinformation

20 February 2024: Gendered Disinformation and the Fight for Democracy: Navigating the Threats Towards the 2024

Elections EU Disinfo Lab. February 20, 2024.

In our webinar on 20 February, Cécile Simmons, Research Manager at the Institute for Strategic Dialogue (ISD), shared with us her insights on how gendered abuse and disinformation threaten women’s rights and democracy.


‘An age of manufactured mistrust’: Here’s what rampant disinformation means for health, climate, and democracy

Fortune. Bill Novelli. February 13, 2024.

“Well over 300,000 Americans are in graveyards today because of the misinformation, the doubt, the suspicion, the distrust that caused them to say that vaccine is not safe for me. And it continues,” Dr. Francis Collins, the former head of the National Institutes of Health said in September 2022, citing a KFF estimate.

Disinformation not only continues but it’s getting worse. Public trust is declining due to social media, and increasingly, artificial intelligence (AI). As the COVID-19 pandemic showed, distrust can lead to preventable deaths.